Menstruation is vaginal bleeding that happens periodically, normally once in a month. It occurs in adolescent girls and women due to hormonal changes after completing a menstrual cycle.
Every month, a woman's ovary releases an egg due to the effect of hormones in the body. At the same time, the lining of uterus begins to grow and thicken. If the egg is not fertilized by the man’s sperm, pregnancy does not occur. This results in the breakdown of the lining and it flows out of the body through the vagina.
Most girls start their period between the age of 12 and 14 years. However, for many girls it may start earlier or later.
For most women their period ends between the age of 45 to 49 years. However, for many women it may stop earlier or later. This condition is referred to as menopause.
Periods normally last from 4 days to 7 days.
It takes 35 days to complete. The average menstrual cycle is about 28 days.
You can track your period on calendar, mark the first day as your bleeding starts with an “X”. Put “X” on each day that you have bleeding. Count the first X as day 1. Keep counting the days until you have your next period.
By doing this every month for the next 8-12 months, you will notice a pattern. It will be easier to tell when you will get your next period.
to find out the date of your next expected menstrual cycle.
No, it is just normal blood mixed with the lining of your uterus.
Gentle exercise can make you feel better
Hot baths relax the muscles and can reduce the severity of the pain
Over-the-counter painkillers which are non-steroidal, anti-inflammatory drugs can help reduce the pain
Please note - Consult your Gynaecologist, do not self medicate.
Just before your periods, you may feel emotional, irritable, tearful, tired, bloated, headache, fullness and pain in the breasts. These are some of the symptoms of pre-menstrual syndrome (PMS or PMT). The symptoms usually disappear hours after the menstrual flow starts.
Small changes in life style help in reducing the symptoms.
Eating fresh food
Avoid processed food, too much salt, e.g. crisps
Eat regular small meals
If PMS is very severe, consult your Gynaecologist.
Menstrual blood loss is measured on the basis of the number of pads and tampons used per day. It is normal if you are using 3-6 pads or tampons per day for 4-7 days.
Consult your Gynaecologist if you are forced to change the pads or tampon every 1-2 hours or if your period lasts for more than 7 days.
It may be due to the effect of pregnancy. If unprotected sex has taken place then try a pregnancy test to check whether you are pregnant. Pregnancy detection kit is available over the counter at the chemist. You can also visit the nearest family planning clinic (FPC) or consult your Gynaecologist.
You need to consult your Gynaecologist for the following abnormal symptoms:
Menstrual cycle of less than 21 days or more than 45 days
Bleeding more than 80 ml or frequent need of changing the pads or tampon every 1-2 hours
Period lasts for more than 7 days
Severe pain before, during or after period
Following care is recommended during periods:
Maintain hygiene – change your pads or tampons regularly
Avoid use of cotton plugs and unhygienic clothes
Keep external genital area clean and hygienic